Ethiopian Journal of Biodiversity - EthJBD

Vol 4 - No 2

Research Articles

Abiyot Berhanu*1, Sebsebe Demissew2

Publication Year: 2023, Page(s): 103 – 131

The study was undertaken with the general objective of investigating the composition, diversity and structure of six forest patches in northwestern Ethiopia. Vegetation data were collected from 154 sampling plots of each 400 m2  (20 m × 20 m). Species frequency, density, basal area, dominance, importance value index and population structure of the forest patches were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. Floristic diversity and evenness were computed using Shannon diversity and evenness indices, respectively. The variations of floristic richness, density and basal area among the forest patches was tested using One-Way ANOVA in PAST software Package. The results of the study revealed that the study area harbored 212 species (122 woody and 90 herbaceous) belonging to 169 genera and 79 families. The Shannon diversity index and evenness values of the study area were 3.7 and 0.8, respectively. The highest number of species were recorded in Khatasa forest, followed by Bradi, Askunabo, Ambiki, Kidamaja and Degera forests. The density, basal area and dominance of woody species were 2172.1 stems ha-1, 41.2 m2  ha-1  and 23.1 m2  ha-1, respectively. There were no significant variations of floristic richness, density and basal area among the forest patches. A number of tree species showed unhealthy population structure and were found to be at conservation risk. To reverse these changes, among other measures, undertaking restoration activities using locally threatened woody species is highly recommended.

Keywords: Basal area, Density, Diversity index, Importance value index, Population.

Abu Feyisa*1, Samson Shimelse2

Publication Year: 2023, Page(s): 132 – 146

Parthenium hysterophorus L. has become a major environmental, social, and economic threat in Ethiopia. Therefore, examining its impacts on soil chemical properties is vital to designing future management strategies. A total of 36 soil samples were collected from P. hysterophorus invaded and non-invaded sites. A simple t-test was conducted to examine the impacts of P. hysterophorus’s invasion on soil chemical properties between invaded and non-invaded sites per depth. Significant pairwise differences (p<0.05) were observed among means of soil pH, calcium, electrical conductivity, phosphorus, and magnesium between invaded and non-invaded sites. The threats of this species on native biodiversity, soil chemical properties, and the economy will be high in the future unless management action is undertaken. This study suggests that all relevant stakeholders should be organized to combat the expansion of the species to new areas.

Keywords: Biological invasion, Impact of invasion; Parthenium hysterophorus, Soil

Abera Seyoum1,Eshete Asnakew1*, Ayalew Wondie2

Publication Year: 2023, Page(s): 147 – 168

A study was conducted on Lake Tana shore with the aim of assessing the impacts of ecohydrological intervention on ecosystem services in terms of the socioeconomic contributions for people living along the Lake Tana shore. Three wetlands grouped as protected (intervened site), disturbed (open) and highly disturbed were selected along the Lake Tana shore for the study. The sampling sites were Gumetirs, Gedromesk and Agid Kirgna wetlands where Gedromesk and Agid Kirgna wetlands were selected as reference sites to compare the socioeconomic aspects with the intervened site of Gumetirs wetland. Qualitative and quantitative data on household characteristics, wetland contribution to the local communities and drivers of changes were collected from 90 household heads (HHDs) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive statistics. The study revealed that crop production is the major source of livelihood which accounted for 48.9%. About 50% of the respondents were not aware of anthropogenic activities and their negative impacts on the ecosystem. Currently, both Gumetirs and Gedromesk wetlands provide more goods and services contributing to more than 97% of the total value of the wetland goods and services due to water accessibility and availability from the wetland. Wetlands’ benefits were associated with the intensive human activities carried out in and around the wetlands, and the level of awareness of the local communities. Ecohydrological intervention provided an immense ecosystem service and also served as a mitigation measure against anthropogenic drivers.

Keywords: Ecosystem services, ecohydrological interventions, human disturbance, Lake Tana, socio-



Temesgen Tigab Derso

Publication Year: 2023, Page(s): 169 – 186

Livestock predation by carnivores is an increasing conservation challenge for wildlife conservation in many developing countries. In this study, the livestock predation by predators in Guna Mountain Community Conservation Area (GMCCA) between September 2019 and August 2022 was determined. Data were collected from 287 households, spread across 14 villages on number of livestock predated,  predators  responsible  for  the  kills  and  season  of  predation. The  major  predators  and their contribution were, African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster), 75.7%), Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta (10.8%), Leopard (Panthera pardus (7.9%) and Serval cat (Leptailurus serval (5.6%). The most serious predator was African wolf, which mainly predated on sheep (88.2 %, N= 1796). Sheep were the dominant livestock affected by predators. The larger proportion of the livestock depredation occurred during the rainy season (76.69 %, N= 1819). The overall economic loss by predator attacks was estimated to be about 136 USD per household per year. African wolf contributed the largest proportion of the economic loss (70.83%). Livestock kills were not reported during the night from the underground shelter which was practiced by

89.2% of the households. The predation rate decreases with increasing distance from the boundaries of the GMCCA, and villages with the closest distance to the protected area lost more livestock. In prevention of the African wolf predation, developing the grazing land management will greatly minimize the economic loss. The underground shelter of livestock was found to be effective technique which could be implemented in other highlands of Ethiopia as well.

Keywords: Carnivore; Economic loss, Human carnivore conflict; Livestock depredation, Predation

Aweke Engdawork*,Teklewold Belayhun, Tesfalem Aseged

Publication Year: 2023, Page(s): 187 – 211

The conservation of animal genetic resources guarantees the continual existence of diversified nature and thereby ensures the achievement of valuable economic, ecological, social, and cultural demands. However, animal genetic resources are currently facing several threats, such as climate change, habitat loss, pollution, invasive species, and infectious diseases. Animals can be conserved in situ in their natural habitat, ex-situ in zoos and farms, and in vitro in gene banks. Thus, the main objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of reproductive technologies and cryopreservation of genetic materials in the conservation of animal genetic resources. The cryopreservation of genetic materials is capable of generating new offspring and has critical importance in the conservation of threatened animal species. Advanced reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, and nuclear transfer, greatly promoted efficiencies in animal production and conservation. Cryopreservation of genetic materials, including semen, oocytes, embryos, and somatic cells, and assisted reproductive technologies  are advantageous in the conservation of genetic resources. Reproductive technologies have been successful in reconstituting animal populations and recovering endangered and extinct animals from cryopreserved genetic materials across the world. In Ethiopia, the application of reproductive and cryopreservation technologies is mainly restricted to livestock genetic improvement. Semen collection and preservation have started for the conservation of threatened cattle breeds and the endangered Ethiopian wolf. Therefore, reproductive and cryopreservation technologies should be extensively applied for sustainable animal  conservation.  Special  emphasis should  be placed  on  the  development  and  application  of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies.

Keywords: Animal  genetic  resource,  Conservation,  Cryopreservation,  Reproductive  technologies, Threatened