Background

Ethiopia is one of the eight Vavilovian centers of diversity or one of the twelve mega-centers of biodiversity. The country’s enormous wealth in crop genetic resources is attributed to its macro and micro climatic variability, altitudinal variation, variation in physio-geographic features and diverse farming systems. The country also has vast cultural diversity, which have also contributed for the existing crop genetic resource diversity and associated community indigenous knowledge and innovations.

Ethiopia is a centre of origin for many cultivated plants such as tef (Eragrostis tef), noug (Guizotia abyssinica), Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata), enset (Ensete ventricosum), anchote (Coccinia abyssinica), Ethiopian potato Plectranthus edulis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). The country is also a centre of diversity for crop plants such as durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), pea (Pisum sativum), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and lentil (Lens culinaris).

It is generally recognized that genetic diversity of crops is essential for sustainable agricultural production and food security. Genetic diversity of crops can increase productivity, food security, and economic returns, make farming systems more stable and sustainable, contribute to sustainable intensification and reduce dependency on external inputs. Genetic diversity in crops is also required to sustain genetic improvement for polygenic traits, such as yield. Maintaining diversity within agricultural systems makes the system more resilient to climate induced events or other shocks. The state of crop diversity is affected by direct and indirect pressures such as demographic change (population pressure), displacement of local varieties by other crops /improved varities, shift to market oriented crop production, pests and disease, drought and invasive alien species. Hence they need to be conserved and put to use.

Since the establishment of the Institute in 1976, systematic crop germplasm exploration, collection and conservation activities have been undertaken. Presently the Crop and Horticulture Biodiversity Directorate is one of the core directorates in the Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute which deals with the conservation and sustainable utilization of crop and horticulture genetic resources. These resources include cereals, pulses, oil crops, root and tuber crops, spices, stimulates, fruits, flowers, vegetables and industrial crops. These crops contribute significantly for food and lively security of the people.

Duties and responsibilities

  1. Explore and collect field and horticultural crop genetic resources
  2. Conserve the country’s crop genetic resources using appropriate conservation methods
  3. Characterize and evaluate field and horticultural crops to enhance their utilization and conservation
  4. Establish and managing new field genebank and on farm conservation sites for effective conservation of crop genetic resources
  5. Distribute crop and horticulture germplasm to different users
  6. Restore farmers’ varieties in their original collection areas
  7. Distribute conserved crop genetic resources to users (researchers, breeders, farmers)
  8. Conduct conservation based research
  9. Conduct awareness raising on crop diversity, their conservation and use
  10. Collect and document the indigenous knowledge associated with use and management of farmers’ varieties
  11. Study the status and trends of the country’s crop biodiversity

The Directorate is divided in to four case teams. These are: Genebank case team, Characterization and evaluation case team, On-farm conservation and community seed bank case team, and Field genebank case team.

Genebank case team

Achievements 

  • A total of 76802 accessions belonging to 62 species have been collected and conserved in the cold rooms and field genebank.
  • About 167, 000 accessions of different plant species distributed to different users.

Facilities

  • Cold rooms (Four cold rooms -10 ºC capacity of nearly 350 m3, One cold room +4 ºC with a capacity of 50 m3), seed processing, drying, germination testing facilities.

Future plan

  • Duplicate conserved seeds in duplicate genebank, establishes core collection,
    Physical verification of germplasm in genebank and inventory, distribute genetic materials with known traits, and standardize the genebank.

Characterization and evaluation case team

Achievements

  • 7250 accessions have been characterized using morphological traits.
  • More than 3000 accessions have been analysed for nutrition content.

Facilities

  • Nutrition, Biochemical and seed health testing laboratories.

Future plan

  • Align the characterization data with the genebank database, evaluate conserved genetic materials for desirable traits, promote genetic resources with desirable traits, modernize the nutrition, molecular and seed health laboratories

On farm conservation and community seed bank case team

Achievements

  • Twenty one on farm conservation sites and community seed banks have been established, and crop conservation associations are organized
  • Inventory and survey on the status of Farmer’s varieties have been conducted
  • Training to farmers and other stakeholder were conducted
  • Restoration of some conserved crop genetic resources have been conducted
  • Different endangered and locally adapted farmers varieties have been conserved on farm

Facilities

  • Community seed storing facilities

Future plan

  • Strengthen existing on farms sites and establish new ones, conduct participatory variety selection, enhance farmers varieties , document indigenous knowledge, Restore farmers varieties, create market linkage to selected crops,

Field genebank case team

The case team is mandated to undertake collection and conservation of horticultural genetic resources. Farmers often adopt new varieties and cease growing the varieties that they were used to grow and eventually lose these varieties. The wild species are also threatened with extinction as their habitats are destroyed by human activities. Hence, conservation and sustainable utilization of the available horticultural crops diversity is imperative supply raw materials for crop improvement programs and to ensure food and livelihood security at local and national level.

Many important horticultural crops produce recalcitrant seed or reproduce vegetatively. The field gene bank is one of the ex situ conservation facility where clonal materials and species with recalcitrant seed storage behavior are conserved as living collections. Germplasm conservation in field gene bank involves the collecting of germplasm from farmers’ field, home garden and wild and transferring and planting the collected germplasm in other site. In field gene banks the plant genetic resources are kept as live plants that undergo continuous growth and require continuous management. Planting and harvesting often carried out every season for the annual and biannual crops. Appropriate cultural practices are also applied in different growth stages of the crop. Plants are planted with proper field lay out and labels are placed to avoid mixing up of conserved accessions. Currently, four field gene banks established by the Ethiopian Biodiversity to conserve horticultural biodiversity.  Many root and tuber crops, Arabica coffee and spices are conserved are being conserved in field gene bank. Often, germplasm collection is prioritized on the basis of economic importance, genetic diversity, level of threats and endemicity.

Achievements

  • Four field gene banks were established in different parts of the country
  • 5469 Arabica coffee, 705 root and tuber crops and 348 spices are collected and conserved in the field gene bank
  • A number of accessions conserved has been distributed to various users
  • Inventory of species holding of field gene banks has been conducted

Service currently provided by the case team

  • Distribute conserved germplasm for users
  • Awareness raising
  • Joint germplasm collection with national research centers to link conservation with research

Choche field gene bank

Choche field gene bank is located in Oromia Regional State in Jimma Zone, Goma Woreda near Agaro town at approximately 1500 masl, at 7o54’ N and 36o39’ E. It has a total area of 21 hectares. The field gene bank was established three decades ago mainly for conserving coffee genetic resources of the country. Currently, however, 10 species of 5557 accessions of horticultural genetic resources are being conserved in the field gene bank.

Bedesa field gene bank

Bedessa field gene bank was established in 2002 primarily for conserving Harar coffee genetic resources. The field gene bank is located in Oromia Regional State, West Harerghe Zone, Odda Buletum  Woreda near Bedessa town, at 8o53? N and 40o46? E. It has a total land area of 7.8 hectares. Currently, a total of 807 Harar coffee accessions are being conserved in the field gene bank. Further collection will also be conducted to address areas and farmers’ varieties that were not addressed in previous collection missions.

Yayo field gene bank

Yayo field gene bank was established in 2015 to conserve the ever declining wild Arabica coffee genetic resources of the country. The field gene bank is located in Yayo woreda, Ilu Ababora zone of the Oromia Regional State. It has total land area of3.6 hectares. Currently, 350 plants of wild Arabica coffee collection are being conserved in the field gene bank. The field gene bank will be used to conserve wild Arabica coffee genetic resources of the country. Hence, future collection programs will target all areas that are believed to harbor wild Arabica coffee.

Angacha field gene bank

The field gene bank was established in 2013 in South Nation and Nationality People Region, Kembata Tembaro Zone Angacha wereda. The field genebank was mainly established the ever declining  diversity of  enset. The field genebank has a total land area of 2.08 ha. Currently more than  88 farmers mamed clones of enset are conserved. Additional clones will be collected and conserved from the areas that were not addressed in the previous collection missions.

Future plan

  • Strengthen existing field gene banks
  • Establish new field gene banks to conserve the declining horticultural genetic resources
  • Identify areas and crops that were not addressed in previous collection missions Document indigenous knowledge
  • Distribute conserved germplasm samples to users
  • Conduct awareness raising campaign
  • Produce catalogue and brochures
  • Conduct research on the conserved accessions

Research activities

Different research activities which contribute to efficient management and utilization of crop genetic resources have been carried by the directorate. The recent ones include:

Journal

  1. Sintayehu Admas, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Kassahun Tesfaye, Eleni Shiferaw, K. Colton Flynn (2021). Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes for tolerance to Frost in controlled environment. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci. 44(2):151–160. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sinet.v44i2.2

  2. Sintayehu Admas, Kassahun Tesfaye, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Eleni Shiferaw, and K. Colton Flynn. (2121). Genetic Variability and population structure of Ethiopian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm. PLoS ONE 16(11):e0260651. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0260651

  3. Sintayehu Admas, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Kassahun Tesfaye, Eleni Shiferaw, K. Colton Flynn (2021). Evaluation of Ethiopian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes for frost tolerance. Acta agriculturae Slovenica 117/2:1-14. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2021.117.2.2079

  4. Sintayehu Admas, Kassahun Tesfaye, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Eleni Shiferaw & Colton Flynn (2021). Phenotypic Variability of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) Germplasm with Temporally Varied Collection from the Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture 7:1 https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2021.1896117

  5. Flynn, K. C., Frazier, A. E., and Sintayehu Admas (2020). Nutrient Prediction for Tef (Eragrostis tef) Plant and Grain with Hyperspectral Data and Partial Least Squares Regression: Replicating Methods and Results across Environments. Remote Sensing12(18), 2867 https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12182867

  6. Flynn, K. C., Frazier, A. E., and Sintayehu Admas (2020). Performance of chlorophyll prediction indices for Eragrostis tef at Sentinel-2 MSI and Landsat-8 OLI spectral resolutions. Precision Agriculture, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-020-09708-4

  7. Sintayehu Admas, Kassahun Tesfaye and T/hymanot Haileselassie (2018). Application of advanced genomics for conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences 17: 30-41

  8. Sintayehu Admas and Kassahun Tesfaye (2017) Genotype-by-environment interaction and yield stability analysis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes in North Shewa, Ethiopia. Agriculture and Environment 9:82-94. DOI: 10.1515/ausae-2017-0008

  9. Sintayehu Admas and Gize Abeje (2017) Phenotypic diversity studies in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Germplasm of Ethiopian collections. International Journal of Current Research 9(03):48506-4851248506-48512. http://www.journalcra.co

  10. Sintayehu Admas (2016) Review of Biological Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops and Neonicotinoid Treated Seed Use on Staten Island. The International Journal of Biotechnology 5(4): 62-68: DOI: 10.18488/journal.57/2016.5.4/57.4.62.68

  11. Sintayehu Admas and Kifle Dagne (2009). Meiotic Behaviour 0f Eragrostis tef amd E. pilosa. Africa Crop Science Journal 16 (4):237-241.

  12. Sintayehu Admas and Getachew Belay (2011) Variation for Drought-Resistance Traits in Eragrostis tef X E. pilosa Inbred Lines. Afri.J.Agri.Res 6(16): 3636-3645

  13. Jemal Mohammed. The Role of Genetic Diversity to Enhance Ecosystem Service. American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2019, pp. 46-51. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20190503.13

  14. Jemal Mohammed. Challenges in Implementing Biodiversity Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa Region. American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 24-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20200602.12

  15. Delessa Angassa, Jemal Mohammed. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Ethiopian Landrace Barley (Hordeum Vulgare (L.)) Genotypes Through Multivariate Analysis. American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2021, pp. 67-73. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20210703.12

  16. Delessa Angassa, Jemal Mohammed. Agro-morphological Variability Study of Ethiopian Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Accessions for Their Important Agronomical Traits at Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 10, No. 1, 2022, pp. 19-25. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20221001.13

  17. MOHAMMED, J., MOHAMMED, W. and SHIFERAW, E., 2020. Correlation and path coefficient analysis among agro-morphological and biochemical traits of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] genotypes in Ethiopia. Acta agriculturae Slovenica115(2), pp.329-339.

  18. Assefa, M., F. Sileshi, N. Bacha, and K. Gutu. 2018. Seedling resistance of selected Ethiopian bread and durum wheat lines against dominant stem rust races Seedling resistance of selected Ethiopian bread and durum wheat lines against dominant stem rust races. (January 2021). doi: 10.1007/s42161-018-0157-0.

  19. Woubit, D.B., S. Eleni, S. Fitsum, A. Mekonnen, and A. Shimeles. 2021.  Assessment of genetic diversity and wilt disease resistance in hot pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) germplasm from Ethiopia . Biodivers. Res. Conserv. 63(1): 31–40. doi: 10.2478/biorc-2021-0006.

  20. Evaluating the Role of Temperature on the Germination of …https://ideas.repec.org › journl › v7y2018i4p115-116

  21. Negewo · 2018 · Cited by 1 — Abebe Sori Negewo2018. “Evaluating the Role of Temperature on the Germination of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.),” International Journal o

  22. Bishaw Baye and Wubshet Teshome. The role Indigenous Knowledge in Agricultural Farming practices: the case of Gonder and Gojam area, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences Volume 7, Issue 12 , 2020,pp. 106-112

  23. Dessalegn Anshiso, Wubeshet Teshome. Economic Value of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Conservation at Bale Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. American Journal of Business, Economics and Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2018, pp. 104-109.

  24. Correlation and Path Analysis Among Agro-Morphological …https://iiste.org › JBAH › article › download Jun 30, 2021 — Correlation and Path Analysis Among AgroMorphological and. Nutritional Composition of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) Chaltu Beyene Yimer1. genetic variation among white lupin (lupinus albus l … https://academicjournals.org › JPBCS › article-abstract

  25. Beyene · 2020 · Cited by 2 — landraces from Northwestern and Southern Ethiopia for agronomic traits and nutrient contents of grain. Chaltu Beyene.

  26. Correlation and Path Coefficent Analysis of Pod Yield and … https://www.ijert.org › research › correlation-and-…

  27. Correlation and Path Coefficent Analysis of PodYield and Related Traits of Okra [AbelmoschusEsculentus (L.) MoenchGenotypes Evaluated at. Melkassa… 10 pages

  28. Wubeshet Teshome1 *, Nesru Temam2 and Delessa Angassa3. Economic Valuation of Anchote (Cocciniaa byssinica(Lam.) Cogn) by estimating willingness to pay for conservation and sustainable utilization at East Wellega, Ethiopia . International Journal of Modern Chemistry and Applied Science, 2017, 4(3),548-554

  29. Nesru Temam,1 Wassu Mohamed,2 Shimelis Aklilu3 (.2020) Agro morphological Characterization and Evaluation of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] Genotypes for Yield and Other Variability Components at Melkassa, Central Ethiopia. MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences. Volume 5 Issue 2 – 2020

  30. Nesru Temam1* , Wassu Mohammed and Shimelis Aklilu3. Evaluation of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] Genetic Variability at Melkassa, Central Ethiopia.(2020) Int.J.Curr.Res.Aca.Rev.2020; 8(10): 71-85 http://www.ijcrar.com

  31. Gemechu ORDOFA JARA 1 * , Wubishet TESHOME GEBRETSADIK 2 , Nesru TEMAM HAJIFATO 2. (2021) HOUSEHOLDS’ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR THE CONSERVATION OF NOUG: A CASE STUDY .Review of Agricultural and Applied Economics Acta Oeconomica , Vol. XXIV, Issue 2, 2021: 37-48 RAAE doi: 10.15414/raae

  32. Wubeshet Teshome, Nesru Temam. Valuing local bread wheat farmer’s varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) for conservation and sustainable utilization in goro and agarfa CSBs, bale zone OF Oromiya regional state. MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences. Volume 6 Issue 5 – 2021

  33. Hindawi International Journal of Agronomy Volume 2021, Article ID 6678561, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6678561

  34. Nesru Temam ,1 Wassu Mohammed,2 and Shimelis Aklilu(2021) Variability Assessment of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Genotypes Based on Their Qualitative Traits. Hindawi International Journal of Agronomy Volume 2021, Article ID 6678561, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6678561

  35. Wubshet Teshome. Determination of Nitrogen fertilizer Requirement of Durum Wheat on Growth and Grain Yield At Butajira Ethiopia. Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. (2020). 7(3): 7-16                 

  36. Benti Ofga, Yohannis Petros. Genetic Variability and Association Among Agronomic Characters in Selected Field Pea (Pisumsativum L.) Genotypes at Bale Zone, Sinana Research Center, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Genetics and Genomics. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2017, pp. 63-75. doi: 10.11648/j.ijgg.20170506.11

  37. Benti Ofga. Comparing Yield Performance and Morpho-agronomic Characters of Landraces and Released Varieties of Field Pea (Pisumsativum L.) at Agarfa and Goro Woredas, Bale Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Genetics and Genomics. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 34-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ijgg.20190703.11

  38. Benti Ofga  ,Nigusu Girma . Evaluating Yield Performance and Morpho-agronomic Characters of Landraces and Released Varieties of selected Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes at Bale Zone, Agarfa Woreda, Oromia Region,Ethiopia.Global scientific Journal. Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2021, 10.11216/gsj.2021.10.54054. Online: ISSN 2320-9186 www.globalscientificjournal.com.EOI;

  39. Benti Ofga (MSc.),Tegene Regasa(BSc.). Traditional Medicinal Plants and Their Uses In Shefari’o Kebele,Goba Woreda ,Bale Zone,Oromia Regional ,Ethiopia. GSJ: Volume 9, Issue 10, October 202110.11216/gsj.2021.10.55054. ISSN 2320-9186www.globalscientificjournal.com.EOI; .

  40. Benti Ofga. Analysis Of Mung Bean Value Chain In The Case Of Delo Mena District, Bale Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. GSJ: Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2021.10.11216/gsj.2021.10.54002, Online: ISSN 2320-9186 www.globalscientificjournal.com

  41. Nigusu Girma,Mesfin Boja.Conservation And Harvesting Challenges Of Medicinal Plants And Documenting Their Associated Indigenous Knowledge (Ik) In Goba, Dinsho And Dello Mena Districts Of Bale Zone South East Ethiopia. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR), July 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3 www.ijrar.org (E-ISSN 2348-1269, P- ISSN 2349-5138)

  42. Wubeshet Teshome1 and Dessalegn Anshiso2* Assessment of Production and Utilization of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) at the Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 31(3): 1-12, 2019; Article no.AJAEES.47315 ISSN: 2320-7027

  43. Seblework Belaineh -, (2020 ) Aframomum Corrorima Storage Behavior Status And Its Use As A Plant In The Community. .  GSJ: Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020, Online – Documents … https://vdocuments.mx › Documents 9  International Journal of Agriculture And Veterinary … – iaard.net http://www.iaard.net › images › IAARD-Journals-… IAARD Journals. eISSN:2456-009X … Seblework Belaineh. Page No.55. Seed Storage behavior of wild and cultivated enset (Enset Ventricosum) and..

  44. Seblework Belaineh. Page No.51. Storage behaviorstudy on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L,). Seblework Belaineh. 12  AARD Journals. eISSN:2456-009X5.Nov 1, 2004 — Keywords: Storage behavior, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) long-term conservation. *Corresponding Author: Seblework Belaineh, Ethiopian .

  45. Abebe Sori Negewo1!.Evaluating the Role of Temperature on the Germination of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).International journal of scince.volume 7_2018,(04)

  46. Wubeshet Teshome and    Tenaw Workayehu  ( 2017 ) Effect of Compost on Agronomic Treat of Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Turgidum L.) at Meskan Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture And Veterinary Sciences

  47. Solomon Mengistu. Preliminary Screening of Maize Accessions Against Common Rust Disease (Puccinia sorghi Schw) in Arsi Negele District, Ethiopia American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2021; 9(3): 75-80 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/biodoi: 10.11648/j.bio.20210903.13ISSN: 2328-5885 (Print); ISSN: 2328-5893

  48. Bekele Kindie1* and Tahir Abdala2* Review on Investigate the Growth Responses of Rooting and Shooting Performance of Populus alba Cuttings Grown in Hydroponic and Soil Cultures Environments Research & Reviews: Journal of Botanical Sciences e-ISSN:2320-0189  p-ISSN:2347-2308

  49. Kassahun Tesfaye, Solomon Mengistu. Maize germplasm agro-morphological trait characterization based on heritability and expected genetic advance analysis under Ethiopian conditionsMedCrave, Biodiversity International Journal Biodiversity Int J. 2021;5(2):47‒50.
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335444805_Diversity_Study_of_Some_Ethiopian_Barley_Hordeum_Vulgare_L_Accessions_for_Their_Agronomical_Important_Traits
    . 2019

  50. Bekele Kindie*, Chala Tamiru, Tahir Abdala.Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants and Conservation Status Used to Treat Human and    Livestock Ailments in Fadis District, Eastern Ethiopia International Journal of Homeopathy & Natural Medicines 2021; 7(1): 7-17 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijhnm doi: 10.11648/j.ijhnm.20210701.12 ISSN: 2472-2308 (Print); ISSN: 2472-2316

  51. Chala Tamiru Assessments impact of an invasive alien weed species on indigenous species and its management practices in eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia  International Journal of Research in Agronomy E-ISSN: 2618-0618   P-ISSN: 2618-060X

  52. Debissa Lemessa and Eleni Shiferaw (2021). Evaluation of germination pretreatment and composition of some nutrients in Eriosema cordifolium: an overlooked wild edible plant in Ethiopia. (Short communication). Ethiopian Journal of Biodiversity 2(1):97-102.

  53. Dawit Bedane Woubit, Shiferaw Eleni, Sileshi Fitsum , Assefa Mekonnen & Aklilu Shimeles (2021). Assessment of genetic diversity and wilt disease resistance in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm from Ethiopia. Biodiversity: Research and Conservation. 63: 31-40, 2021. DOI 10.2478/biorc-2021-0006.

  54. Eleni Shiferaw (2021). Analysis of gliadin patterns and diversity in Triticum polonicum (L.) accessions from Ethiopia. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 117/1, 1–6 doi:10.14720/aas.2021.117.1.1935.

  55. Henok Ayelign, Eleni Shiferaw, and Faris Hailu (2020). Genetic variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using seed protein markers. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment, 12(1) 58-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ausae-2020-0005.

  56. Zerihun Teshome, Meseret Tesema Terfa, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Eleni Shiferaw, Temesgen Magule Olango (2020). Genetic diversity in anchote (Coccinia abyssinica (Lam.) Cogn) using microsatellite markers. Current Plant Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpb.2020.100167

  57. Jemal Mohammed, Wassu Mohammed, Eleni Shiferaw (2020). Correlation and path coefficient analysis among agro-morphological and biochemical traits of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] genotypes in Ethiopia. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 115/2, 329–339. doi:10.14720/aas.2020.115.2.1411.

  58. Eleni Shiferaw, M. E. Pe`, E. Porceddu, M. Ponnaiah (2017). Application of CAPS markers for diversity assessment in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Biodiversity: Conservation and Research 48: 11–18; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/biorc-2017-0012.

  59. Tesfaye Woldesemayate, Kassahun Tesfaye, Eleni Shiferaw and Tesfaye Awas (2016). Assessing genetic diversity and population structure of thyme (Thymus schimperi RONNIGER) in Eastern, Central and Northern highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Development (JAD): [48] –6 (1). 1-29.

  60. Dimiru Tilahun, Eleni Shiferaw, Eva Johansson, and Faris Hailu (2016).Genetic variability of Ethiopian bread wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) using agro-morphological traits and their gliadin content. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 11(5), 330-339.

  61. Seid Ebrahim, Eleni Shiferaw and Faris Hailu (2015). Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from Wollo highland areas using agro-morphological traits and hordein. African Journal of Biotechnology. 14(22), 1886-1896

  62. Fekere Fugaro and Melese Maryo. 2018 . Ehino botanical study of Wild Edible Plants in Kedida Gamella Woreda, Kamibata Tembaro Zone SNNPRS, Ethiopia. International journal of modern pharmaceutical research.,2 (5),01-09.

  63. Fekere Fugaro and Melese bekela, 2021. Ehino botanical study of Medicinal Plants in Kedida Gamella Woreda, Kamibata Tembaro Zone SNNPRS, Ethiopia International journal of modern pharmaceutical research.,42(5),01-14.

  64. Addis Tadesse, 2021. Seasonal Analysis of Maize Production Using DSSAT-CERES model in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Journal of climatology and weather forcasting, vol. 9; 291.

  65. Addis Tadesse, Endale Taye; Teshome Mesfin, Alemseged Yelma and Sisay Eshetu, 2016. Management of Desmodium for efficient Weed control and soil moisture conservation to improve the production of Coffee Arabica at Gera, Southwest Ethiopia. World Journal of Biology and Medical Sciences Published by Society for Advancement of Science, ISSN 2349-0063 (Online/Electronic) Vol-3:93-100.

  66. Addis Tadesse, Endale Taye, Alemseged Yelma and Teshome Mesfine, 2016. Intercropping of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) with Korerima (Aframomum korarima) in South-Western Ethiopia World Journal of Biology and Medical Sciences Published by Society for Advancement of Science® ISSN 2349-0063 (Online/Electronic) Volume 3, Issue- 1, 43-49.

  67. Addis Tadesse, and Hea Koo Kim, 2015. Yield-Related Traits and Yield of Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) affected by Nitrogen Levels to achieve maximum yield in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture, and Healthcare. Vol: 12.

  68. Addis Tadesse; Hea Koo Kim and Adugna Debela, 2015. Calibration of Nitrogen Fertilizer for Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) Based On In-Season Estimated Yield Using a Handheld NDVI Sensor in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. ABC research house Asian Pacific Journal of energy and environment. Vol: 2:1.

  69. Addis Tadesse; Endale Taye, and Teshome Mesfine, 2015. Effect of Temporary Shade Tree Species on Growth Performance of Newly Transplanted Arabica coffee Seedlings at Jimma Agricultural Research Centre. Journal of Biology, Agriculture, and Healthcare.

  70. Addis Tadesse, 2020. Crop production under changing climate and potential adaptation strategies. International Journal for Research in Agricultural and Food Science ISSN: 2208-2719.

  71. Addis Tadesse, 2019. ‘Concepts and Types of Plant Growth Hormones and their role in Field Crop Production, international journal of research in agriculture and food

  72. Addis Tadesse, Amsalu Nebiyu, 2016. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management to Mitigate Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emission in Maize Production. World Journal of Biology and Medical Sciences. Vol-3, issue 4, 64-91, October to December, 2016 ISSN 2349-0063 (Online/Electronic).

  73. Addis Tadesse, 2016. Adaptation and Constraints of Conservation Agriculture. Journal of Biology, Agriculture, and Healthcare. Vol: ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) Vol.6, No.1. 

  74. Addis Tadesse, 2016. Assessment of Distribution, Biology, and Management of Maize Stem Borer (Busseola Fusca Fuller) in Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) Vol.6, No.5, 2016

  75. Addis Tadesse, Melkam Anteneh, 2016. Drought Tolerance Mechanisms in Field Crops. Journal of World Journal of Biology and Medical Sciences. Published by Society for Advancement of Science ISSN 2349-0063 (Online/Electronic) Volume 3, Issue- 2.

  76. Assefa, M., Sileshi, F., Bacha, N. et al. J Plant Pathol (2018). Seedling resistance of selected Ethiopian bread and durum wheat lines against dominant stem rust races. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-018-0157-0

  77. Fitsum S., Amin M., Selvaraj T. and Mulugeta N. (2014). Field Management of Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) in Common Bean through Foliar Spray Fungicides and Seed Treatment Bio-agents. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal.3(2): 19-25 

  78. Fitsum S., Amin M., Selvaraj T. and Alemayehu A. (2014). In vitroEvaluation of Some Fungicides and Bio-agents against Common Bean Anthracnose(Colletotrichum lindemuthianum). African Journal of Microbiology Research. 8(20): 2000-2005

  79. Basazen Fantahun *, Fitsum Sileshi, Tegegnwork Wondosen, Hinsene Garuma and Tesfaye W/ Semayat. 2019. Farmers’ Varieties as an Alternative to Climate Smart Agriculture, the Case of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 8(3), 2319-1473.

  80. Dawit Bedane Woubit, Shiferaw Eleni, Sileshi Fitsum, Assefa Mekonnen & Aklilu Shimeles. 2021. Assessment of genetic diversity and wilt disease resistance in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm from Ethiopia. Biodiversity Research Conservation, 63: 31-40. 

  81. Alemnew Muchie, Current Status of Spice Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization in Ethiopia: A Review. International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2021, pp. 163-170. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnrem.20210604.11

  82. Alemnew Muchie, Fikirte Assefa. Impact of Climate Change on Horticultural Crops Production and Quality: A Review. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 9, No. 6, 2021, pp. 156-161. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20210906.12

  83. Assefa,F and Srivasan.K (2016).Effect of Relative Humidity and Temperature on Shelf Life of Sorghum, Lentil and Niger Seeds. International Journal of Applied agricultural Sciences.2 (6), 83-91

  84. Alemnew Muchie, Demewez Fentie(2016). Performance Evaluation of Maize Hybrids ( Zea Mays L) in Bahir Dar Zuria District , North Western Ethiopia . http://internationalinventjournals.org

  85. Agete Jerena Kabeto Major Red Beans Marketing Channels in Halaba Special District, International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences (IJRSAS) Volume 3, Issue 12, 2017, PP 8-17 ISSN No.: 2454–6224

  86. Fantahun, B., Sileshi, F., Wondosen, T., Garuma, H., & W/semayate, T. (2019). Farmers ’ Varieties as an Alternative to Climate Smart Agriculture , the Case of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L .). 8(3), 264–271.

  87. Gotor, E., Usman, M. A., Occelli, M., Fantahun, B., Fadda, C., Kidane, Y. G., Mengistu, D., Kiros, A. Y., Mohammed, J. N., Assefa, M., Woldesemayate, T., & Caracciolo, F. (2021). Wheat varietal diversification increases ethiopian smallholders’ food security: Evidence from a participatory development initiative. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031029

  88. Yohannes, Tamene; woldesemayate, T. (2017). BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION. In International journal of Current Research (Vol. 9, Issue 08). www.journalcra.com

  89. Kauê S , Jacob E, Jesse P, Carlo F, Jean-Luc J, Yosef G, Basazen F, Dejene K, Enrico Pè, Svein S & Matteo D (2021). Data-driven decentralized breeding increases prediction accuracy in a challenging crop production environment. Communications in Biology 4:944 https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02463-w  www.nature.com/commsbio.

  90. Jacob E; Eskender B.; Luis C., Kees D; Carlo F.; Basazen F; Yosef G.; Jeske G.;Arnab G.; Dejene K.;Dan K.; et al. First experience with novel farmers’ citizen science approach: crowdsourcing participatory variety selection through on-farm triadic comparisons of the technologies (TRICOT). Expl Agric. (2019), volume 55 (S1), pp. 275–296. doi:10.1017/S0014479716000739

  91. Basazen F.; Fitsum S.; Tegegne W.; Hinsene G.; Tesfaye W.; (2019). Farmers varieties as an alternative to climate smart agriculture, the case of barley (Hordeum vulgare). International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and research V.8, Issue 3.

  92. Basazen F (2019) The review of wheat, its controversies and the Ethiopian context. International Journal of Current Research 9(12):62882-62885. DOI:10.1534/genetics.

  93. Basazen F and Getachew B, (2011). Genetic variability in Triticale genotypes: What worth is the Breeding Effort? Crop Science Society of Ethiopia (CSSE). Sebil Vol.13 pp170-173. Proceedings the Thirteenth Biennial Conference, 31st Dec.2008 – 2nd Jan. 2009 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  94. Solomon G, Basazen F, Balcha Y and Bedada G, (2007).Triticale (X Triticosecale wittmack)- A New Addition to the Ethiopian Cereals. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings Vol. 8. pp. 1991-1995

  95. Amare Seifu, Tamene Yohannes, Fissaha Asmelash and Ashenafi Ayenew (2019) Assessment on the status of Osyris quadripartita Decn. in Borena, East Shewa, West and East Guji Zones, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Species, 2019, 20, 191-199.

  96. Tamirat H, Yohannes T (2018) Evaluation of the Fitness for Use of Oil Crops Spatial Datasets for Biodiversity Conservation. Geoinfor Geostat: An Overview 6:4. doi: 10.4172/2327-4581.1000193

  97. Tamene Yohannes and Tesfaye Weldesemayat (2017). Biotechnology and Biodiversity Conservation: Are they conflicting? International Journal of Current Research. Vol. 9. Issue, 08, pp. 55427-55433, August 2017.

  98. Tamene Yohannes (2017). Forest Management Solutions for Mitigating Climate Change: The Contribution of Ethiopian forests as Carbon Sink and Climate Change Mitigation. International Journal of Current Research. Vol. 9. Issue, 06, pp. 52260-52269, June, 2017

  99. Tamene Yohannes and Sebsebe Demissew (2017). Data Quality Assessment and Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Genetic Resources in Ethiopia. International Journal of Current Research. Vol. 9, Issue, 05, pp.51006-51013, May, 2017.

  100. Tamene Yohannes (2017). Prosopis juliflora (SWARTZ) DC. Ecological Impact and Control in Ethiopia. International Journal of Current Research Vol. 9, Issue, 05, pp.50936-50939, May, 2017.

  101. Tamene Yohannes (2015). Diversity of Crop Wild Relatives and Edible Wild Plants in Ethiopia. J Biodiversity Manage & Forestry Vol. 4:3.

  102. Tesfaye Awas and Tamene Yohannes (2015). Contribution of the Ethiopian Flora Project to the Ethiopian Plant Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use. Published on the Ethiop. J. Biol. Sci., Vol. 13/2015 (Supplement/Special issue), Biological Society of Ethiopia, ISSN: 1819-8678.

  103. Abate M. The challenge of farmers’ varieties of tef (Eragrostis tef (zucc.) trotter) production and on farm conservation in North West Amhara region, Ethiopia. Horticult Int J.2020;4(5):187-198.DOI:10.15406/hij.2020.04.00181

  104. Mersha Tezera. Genetic Divergence of Introduced Upland Rice Genotypes At Fogera In North Western Ethiopia. Int J Plant Sci Agri.2021; 04(1):118-123.

  105. Effect of Quality seed of tef (Eragrostis tef Zucci [Trotter]) on Yield and yield related traits.Vol.11(2)pp.1-4,November 2020;DOI:http:/dx.doi.org/10.14303/irjps.2020.0012

  106. Mersha Tezera. Variability, Heritability and Genetic advance of introduced upland rice genotypes at Fogera, North Western Ethiopia. Journal of plant studies. Vol. 10, No. 2; 2021. doi:10.5539/jps.v10n2p30

  107. Molla Abate, Getachew Alemayehu. Biological benefits of intercropping maize with Fenugreek, field pea and haricot bean under irrigation in Fogera Plain, South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. Agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Vol.7,No.1,2018,pp19-35.doi:10.11648/j.aff.20180701.14.

  108. Molla Abate, Getachew Alemayehu. Economics of maize with Fenugreek, field pea and haricot bean in Fogera plain, North West Ethiopia. Nigerian Agricultural Journal. Volume 51, Number 3, December 2020, Pg. 285-296.

  109. Mersha Tezera. The Effect of Nano Fertilizer on Teff Yield and Yield Components in Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol 7, No. 5, 2021, pp 237-241, doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20210705.14

  110. Delessa Angassa* and Kassahun Tesfaye ( 2019) Diversity Study of Some Ethiopian Barley (Hordeum Vulgare (L.)) Accessions for Their Agronomical Important Trait. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 8, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473

  111. Delessa Angassa ( 2017) Effect of Sowing Method and Seeding Rate on Yield and Yield Components of Rainfed Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties in Woliso, South-West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences 2017; 3(5): 104-110 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijaas doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20170305.11 ISSN: 2469-7877 (Print); ISSN: 2469-7885

  112. Delessa Angassa.( 2018) The impact of invasive alien species on the forage and pasture genetic resource diversity in the pastoral area of Afar National Regional State, Northeastern of Ethiopia. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-3, Issue-5, Sept-Oct- 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.5.46 ISSN: 2456-1878

  113. Delessa Angassa. Genetic Variability of Ethiopian Barley (Hordeum Vulgare (L.)) Genotypes for Yield and Yield Related Traits. Plant. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2021, pp. 101-105. doi: 10.11648/j.plant.20210904.14

  114. : Belay, G.A.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, P. Physio-Morphological and Biochemical Trait-Based Evaluation of Ethiopian and Chinese Wheat Germplasm for Drought Tolerance at the Seedling Stage. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4605. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094605

  115. Kassahun Tesfaye: Genetic diversity study of sorghum (Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moenc) genotypes, Ethiopia Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment, 9 (2017) 44−54 Full text in PDF http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-agrenv/C9/agrenv9-04

  116. Kassahun Tesfaye: Genetic diversity study of sorghum (Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moenc) genotypes, Ethiopia Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment, 9 (2017) 44−54 Full text in PDF http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-agrenv/C9/agrenv9-04

  117. Kassahun Tesfaye, S. Mengistu: Phenotypic characterization of Ethiopian finger millet accessions (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn), for their agronomically important traits Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment, 9 (2017) 107−118 Full text in PDF http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-agrenv/C9/agrenv9-10.pd

Ongoing

  1. Taxonomic identifications and Evaluation of Ethiopian Wheat (Triticum varieties) using Morphological Traits and Molecular Markers in response to climate change Under Different Agroclimatic Zones 
  2. Ethno botanical study of medicinal spices at kedida gamela worada kamibate tembaro zone Southern Netion Nationality of Ethiopia
  3. Evaluation of wheat lines for seedling and adult plant resistance against dominant stem rust races
  4. Genetic diversity and genome wide association mapping of Pheno-agro- morphologic traits of Ethiopian Hulles Barley Lines.
  5. Economic valuation of forest coffee at Kaffa forest
  6. Evaluation of Ethiopian Barley Lines (Hordium vulgare (L)) for yield, yield related traits and Major Barley diseases

Proceeding

  1. K. Colton Flynn and Sintayehu Admas, Dejenne Dida and Tariku Geda  (2019) Utilization of In-situ Imaging Spectroscopy to Delineate Plant and Grain Protein Composition of Eragrostis tef in Different Agro-Ecologies, Proceeding of the 8th National research conference on research for sustainable development, Dilla University 17-19 May 2018
  2. K. Colton Flynn and Sintayehu Admas Tariku Geda, and Dejenne Dida (2019) Employing Imaging Spectroscopy for an Ethiopian Lodging Crop to Predict Plant Health: A Case Study of Eragrostis tef. 7th Digital Earth Summit 2018. IOP Conference Series  
  3. Daniel Admasu, Wondafrash Mulugeta, and Sintayehu Admas, 2008. Performance of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea) Varieties in the lowlands of North Shewa.In Ermias,A.,  Akalu,T., Alemayehu ,A.G,Melaku, W.,Tlahun  and Wondimu, B.(eds).2008. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Regional Conference on Completed Crop Research Activities, 14-17 August 2006.Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
  4. Daniel Admasu, Wondafrash Mulugeta, and Sintayehu Admas, (2008). Evaluation of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Varieties in the lowlands of North Shewa. In Ermias,A.,Akalu,T.,Alemayehu ,A.G,Melaku, W.,Tlahun  and Wondimu, B.(eds).2008. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Regional Conference on Completed Crop Research Activities, 14-17 August 2006.Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
  5. Wondafrash Mulugeta, Daniel Admasu and Sintayehu Admas, (2010). Progress of Sesame and Ground nut Breeding Research in North Shewa, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 2nd National Workshop of Oilseeds in Ethiopia, 24-26 March 2010. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa

National Reports

The status of crop genetic resources has been documented in detail in:

    • Country reports on the State of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2008, 2012)
    • National Reports to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2009, 2014)